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Another Round of Monopoly Anyone?

In Parliament on Monday the Government announced changes to the Telecommunications Act designed to give them powers to require a telecoms company, or Telco, to divest its assets and business to a separate entity should it be found to be engaging in anti-competitive behaviour. Also the government now has the power to take over any network or services if it is in the National or public interest to do so.

According to the Minister for Information, Communications and the Arts, Dr. Yaacob Ibrahim, the Government is committed to ensuring fair competition ‘because ultimately we believe that this will drive prices to an affordable level for all Singaporeans’. This sounds suspiciously similar to what I have always said. Namely, that competition is as vital in business as it is in politics. In particular I was sceptical not so far back, of the Worker’s Party plans for  nationalising the transport industry when I felt that competition (with a strong neutral regulator ) would always be in the best interests of the consumer. My caveat was that I always point out that what we think of as privatised here in Singapore is not really that privatised.

Are these proposed changes to the Telecommunications Act anything other than a public relations charade designed to give the appearance of opening up the domestic economy to more competition?  In fact they do nothing to reduce the power of government-owned or controlled cartels which dominate many of the key consumer sectors of the economy?

Who, after all, is the ultimate owner of the three Telcos operating in Singapore? SingTel, though listed, is majority-owned by Temasek. As is Starhub, in which Temasek has an interest, either directly or indirectly, of about 57%. Even the third player, M1, has Keppel Telecoms (an 80% owned subsidiary of Keppel Corporation in which Temasek holds 22%) and SPH Multimedia (part of Mediacorp) as holders of a third of its shares. The Malaysian state Telco, Axiata, owns a further 20%. In any case, a large number of the directors and senior managers at all three Telcos are either MPs, or have a Civil Service or GLC background. Since the Government clearly controls the telecoms industry already, the need for extra powers to nationalize it in the public interest would appear to be unnecessary.

Normally competition regulators use measures of market concentration such as the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index (HHI as an important measure of whether mergers should be allowed. This is obtained by summing the squares of the market shares of the participants. 10,000 would be a perfect monopoly while a score approaching zero would be close to that ideal of economists, perfect competition. Any score above 2500 would indicate a highly concentrated market though regulators would also take account of other factors as well. These include barriers to entry and new technologies in trying to assess whether historical market shares are a good guide to future pricing power. On the basis of the HHI, Singapore’s telecoms market is thus highly concentrated with a score approaching 10,000 since the Government has a significant stake in all three players and outright control of the biggest two.

When all three Telco providers are either owned by the Government or the Government can be said to exercise significant influence over their management and strategy, how is it possible for the Government to say it is committed to ensuring fair competition? In addition surely it is not believable that the Government can be relied upon to regulate itself when its clear economic interest lies in ensuring that all three companies maximise profits by not competing on price. Is it any coincidence that Singaporeans pay significantly above what UK consumers pay for mobile phone usage (between 50% and 100% more based on a simple comparison of price plans)? Singapore consumers also often have to pay for their phones whereas these are bundled into other countries’ price plans, making the deal for the consumer worse than the headline figures might suggest. The situation is even worse when comparing pre-paid plans, which are used by the less well-off.  This extends to international roaming, where up till now there has been no regulation to protect consumers.

The solution lies not in relying on the Government to do the right thing and regulate itself but to sell off the majority stakes in the three Telcos so they no longer have a common shareholder. At the same time the Competition Commission of Singapore (which is ever eager to come down hard on Indonesian maid agencies but displays a strange reluctance to investigate government monopolies) needs to be strengthened.  Its workings should be more transparent. A start would be more hearings on matters of public interest to which consumer organisations would be invited to make submissions.

Despite the industry regulator, the Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) having lifted all restrictions on the number of licences granted for telecoms business since 2000, we strangely still have an industry which is wholly dominated by government-linked entities.

What has happened in telecoms is not an isolated instance but applies to a whole range of domestic industries and utilities, where the Government is either the sole player or controls, directly or indirectly, a significant part of the market. We can start with land, where the Government owns approximately 79% and of course housing where the HDB is the developer, the builder and together with CPF, most often the lender for the houses most of us live in. Public transport is a duopoly between SMRT, a Temasek-controlled corporation, and SBS Transit, where the major shareholder is NTUC, a government-linked cooperative. Other domestic industries in which the government or government-linked entities have a significant economic interest or a monopoly are food retailing (NTUC), banking (DBS and StanChart), electricity supply and distribution, retail and office space (CapitaLand and CapitaMalls), airlines (SIA and Silkair), shipping (NOL) and media and newspapers (Mediacorp and SPH).

So is the Minister merely being hypocritical when he talks of wanting to ensure “fair” competition or does he really not understand the corporate structure and shareholdings of the companies involved and how markets work? Perhaps this is just another Singaporean example of Newspeak, to invoke George Orwell and 1984, and in Singapore “competition” means monopoly. Given the Government’s dominance in the economy, how does Singapore get rated year after year near the top of certain indices of economic freedom. There is of course no such thing as a completely free market, and I believe that a certain amount of government intervention is required because of market failure. But, even so, Singapore continues to be cited as an example of free market success when it is much closer to state capitalism of the Chinese variety. At our stage of development such policies have outlived their usefulness and are actually holding us back.  A complete break with the policies of the past is needed in the economic sphere just as much as in the political one.


  1. There should be a clear distinction between the Public/Government Sector and the Private Sector. The Government Sector should not be competing with the Private Sector but be complementing it. Civil Servants should have the “ideals of Civil Service” embedded in their minds; if they want money, they should move to the Public Sector. The Privatising of Telcos and Transport Companies are a clever scheme by the PAP to ensure that their henchmen remain in-charge of these previous governmenr bodies even if the Opposition come into power. So, the Opposition if they come into power, must legislate laws to forbid CEOs and Managers of GLCs like Temasek Holdings and GIC from being involved in politics and be clearly non-partisan. Top-civil servants must also swear an oath of being non-partisan. Ministers and MPs who belong to a political party must not discriminate against members of other political parties. This should be made out into an oath for swearing into office.


  2. What do you think about the gov plan to ban smoking at practically every place in Singapore? Isn’t that an infringement on human rights? Isn’t that another way to make money? Isnt education better than all the time resorting to ban n fine? What give them the right to impose their life style on others?


  3. To add to your last but one paragraph …. and taxi companies. At the last count, Citycab (held by Comfort Delgro and Singapore Technologies), Comfort (Comfort Delgro) and SMRT linked companies controlled 75% of the taxi fleet in Singapore. Singaporeans labour happily under the misconception that there is diversity and competition in the taxi industry. Since 2006 fares have been revised twice, followed more or less unanimously by all the government-linked companies. Yet in financial year-ending 2010, Comfort Delgro had a gross profit of over a billion dollars and net income after adjustments of over $200m. Similarly in the most recent two years, SMRT had profits of close to $200m, so that’s nearly half a billion dollars in profits between two government-linked transport companies. SMRT’s ROI (after tax and minority interests, mind you) has been in excess of 20% over the past five years and its net gearing is zero. A bit hard to believe these companies are acting in the public interest ….


  4. Hi, Kenneth, I concur with your observations.
    To the question: So is the Minister merely being hypocritical when he talks of wanting to ensure “fair” competition or does he really not understand the corporate structure and shareholdings of the companies involved and how markets work? – my answer is a definitive YES.

    Indisputably, the govt is in control of a large sector of the Singapore economy and what seems apparent is that the people who get the most benefit from its policies are the papy elites and their cronies.

    Some Singaporeans [the 60%] need to wake up to reality, come 2016.


  5. Thanks, Kenneth.
    Very enlightening article. Please, do continue to lift the veil on
    the govt undercover involvement and control of everything that’s

    The game it plays vis a vis foreign govts is to provide them the facilities and means for their plans in this region. That’s what
    stuffed into their mouths and keeping them quiet and ‘agreeable’.
    They don’t really care for what happened to Singaproeans any more than they care for the massacre and human rights abuses that’s happening in Africa, Central Europe or China.

    I hope more scales are falling from the eyes of Singaporeans. The people of this country and the world needs to more towards being left of centre to counteract the effect of the extremes of the right and runaway capitalism. IMO, the tipping point is not far off here. Given enough rope the powers that be would sooner than later hang themselves with it.


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